IN THE AGÚSAN VALLEY
The Manóbos occupy the whole Agúsan Valley as far as the town of Buai on the upper Agúsan with the following exceptions:
1. The upper parts of the rivers Lamiñga, Kandiisan, Hawilian, and Óhut, and the whole of the river Maásam, together with the mountainous region beyond the headwaters of these rivers, and probably the territory beyond in the district of Misamis, as far over as the habitat of the Bukídnon tribe.13
13The reason for the insertion of this last clause is that the people inhabiting the mountains at the headwaters of the above rivers have the same physical types, dress, and weapons as the Bukídnons, if I may judge from my slight acquaintance with the latter.
2. The towns of Butuán, Talakógon, Bunáwan, Veruéla, and Prosperidad.
3. The town of Tagusab and the headwaters of the Tutui and Binuñgñgaan Rivers.
THE BISÁYAS OR CHRISTIAN FILIPINOSThe Bisáyas or Christian Filipinos in the Agúsan Valley occupy the towns of Butuán, Talakógon, Veruéla, Bunáwan, and Prosperidad, of which latter they formed, during my last visit to the Agúsan Valley, a majority. Outside of the Agúsan Valley, they occupy all the towns on the north coast except the towns of Tortosa, Maasao, Tamolayag, and Malimono'. On, and in the vicinity of Lake Maínit, they occupy the towns of Sison, Timamana, Maínit, Jabonga, Santiago, Santa Ana and several other small ones. On the east coast they occupy all the coast towns from Surigao to Bislig. South of Bislig only the towns, of Kati'il, Baganga, Karága, Santiago, and Mati may be said to be Bisáya, although the Christianized Mandáyas of the intervening towns call themselves Bisáyas. But even the above-mentioned towns, with the exception of Santiago, have hardly any claim to be considered Bisáya in the sense in which that word is applied to the Bisáyas of the town of Surigao. The same holds true of a great portion of the inhabitants of Tándag, Tágo, La Paz, and Kagwáit, where the Mandáya element in language and in superstitious beliefs still holds sway to a considerable extent among the lower class of the inhabitants.
In the Agúsan Valley a great part of the Bisáyas of Talakógon can not be considered as Bisáyas in the full sense of the word. Many of them called Sulibáonon are of no higher culture than the conquistas of the River Sulibáo from which they come. They are distinctly Mandáya in physical type and in manner of life except that they have abandoned the ancient Mandáya religious beliefs and adopted those of Christianity. They are probably the first group of Mandáya conquistas that were induced to leave the Sulibáo and take up their abode in Talakógon.
Source: Garvan,John M.(1929).The Manobos of Mindanao.Retrieved at : http://www.gutenberg.org/files/18607/18607-h/18607-h.htm#1121